Africa's long occupation before the colonization of Eurasia a million years ago might have counted for nothing anyway, because protohumans were at such a primitive stage then. Other available books on world history similarly tend to focus on advanced literate Eur- asian civilizations of the last 5,000 years; they have a very brief treatment of pre-Columbian Native American civilizations, and an even briefer dis- cussion of the rest of the world except for its recent interactions with Eur- asian civilizations. With the crop surpluses that they could grow and store, they fed craft specialists, chiefs, and part-time soldiers. Tools were produced in diverse and distinctive shapes so modern that their functions as needles, awls, engraving tools, and so on are obvious to us. I pray that he may come quickly, for I desire to see him.
The Maori invaders from New Zealand's North Island came from a dense population of farmers chronically engaged in ferocious wars, equipped with more-advanced technology and weapons, and operating under strong leadership. That was the decisive factor in the British Empire's eventual defeat of New Zealand's well-armed indigenous Maori population. Or else: the first settlement occurred somewhat earlier most advo- cates of pre-Clovis settlement would suggest by 15,000 or 20,000 years ago, possibly 30,000 years ago, and few would seriously claim earlier ; but those pre-Clovis settlers remained few in numbers, or inconspicuous, or had little impact, until around 11,000 B. In contrast, New Guineans have been living in societies where human numbers were too low for epidemic diseases of dense populations to evolve. Similarly, Native American farmers of the North American Great Plains grew crops in the river valleys, but farming of the tough sods on the extensive uplands had to await 19th-century Europeans and their animal-drawn plows. Aber ein anständiger Kleinkünstler hat natürlich eine Zugabe vorbereitet.
Over the course of the next few days, they killed hundreds of Mori- ori, cooked and ate many of the bodies, and enslaved all the others, killing most of them too over the next few years as it suited their whim. The Bering land bridge, during its millennia of intermittent existence, would have been up to a thousand miles wide, covered by open tundra, and easily traversable by people adapted to cold conditions. What I teach is that which God says to us in this Book. Are the reported radiocarbon dates really correct, and not invalidated by any of the numerous difficulties that can plague radiocarbon dating? The largest products of Polynesia were the immense stone structures of a few islands — the famous giant statues of Easter Island, the tombs of Ton-i gan chiefs, the ceremonial platforms of the Marquesas, and the temples of Hawaii and the Societies. However, many of them would not have become allies if they had not already been persuaded, by earlier devasta- ting successes of unassisted Spaniards, that resistance was futile and that they should side with the likely winners.
The resulting fixed abode con- tributes to denser human populations by permitting a shortened birth interval. For most of human history those islands lay far beyond the reach of water- craft. Die Polizei in Scarborough ist alarmiert. That shouldn't surprise us, since Polynesia provides only a small slice of the world's geographic diversity. Eurasian agriculture also included most of the large domesticated animals, which provided a crucial symbiotic resource for agricultural production. The initial successes of both Pizarro and Cortes did attract native allies. They were not yet in the business of slaughtering buffalo, pigs, and other dangerous prey.
I gave up after about 50%. How did Atahuallpa come to be at Cajamarca? Of those who did, some for example, the ancient Chinese developed it inde- pendently by themselves, while others including ancient Egyptians acquired it from neighbors. In zoological significance and distinctiveness, Homo erectus was more than an ape, but still much less than a modern human. Atahuallpa was not alone in these fatal miscalculations. However, the differential mortality from epidemic diseases in traditional European societies had little to do with intelligence, and instead involved genetic resistance dependent on details of body chemistry.
Atahuallpa's capture was decisive for the European conquest of the Inca Empire. In addition to the ships themselves, Pizarro's presence depended on the centralized political organization that enabled Spain to finance, build, staff, and equip the ships. Whose deeds can be compared with those of Spain? That is, natural selection promoting genes for intelligence has probably been far more ruthless in New Guinea than in more densely populated, politically complex societies, where natural selec- tion for body chemistry was instead more potent. I think I got about 50% of what the author was saying just due to the dry expression of the narrator. It is a story that spans 13,000 years of human history, beginning when Stone Age hunter-gatherers constituted the entire human population. The northern parts of the African continent profited from this communication as well. Diamond also dissects racial theories of global history, and the resulting work—Guns, Germs and Steel—is a major contribution to our understanding the evolution of human societies.
He offered his famous ransom in the naive belief that, once paid off, the Spaniards would release him and depart. For example, people with blood group B or O have a greater resistance to smallpox than do people with blood group A. Come at these enemy dogs who reject the things of God. Still another, the Austronesian expansion, similarly replaced the indigenous hunter-gatherers of the Philippines and Indonesia and spread out to the most remote islands of Polynesia, but was unable to colonize Australia and most of New Guinea. Pizarro proceeded to hold his prisoner for eight months, while extracting history's largest ransom in return for a promise to free him. As for the types of artifacts made, the Chatham Islanders required little more than hand-held clubs and sticks to kill seals, birds, and lobsters.
The novelty of horses, steel weap- ons, and guns undoubtedly paralyzed the Incas at Cajamarca, but the bat- tles after Cajamarca were fought against determined resistance by Inca armies that had already seen Spanish weapons and horses. Naturally, Polynesia's structures are not on the scale of those pyramids, but that merely reflects the fact that Egyptian pharaohs could draw conscript labor from a much larger human popula- tion than could the chief of any Polynesian island. Soon thereafter, a north-south ice-free corridor opened in the Canadian ice sheet, permitting the first Alaskans to pass through and come out into the Great Plains around the site of the modern Canadian city of Edmon- ton. The Fates of Human Societies is the subheading of this book and it grabbed me. All of that human history, for the first 5 or 6 million years after our origins about 7 million years ago, remained confined to Africa. Eurasia and Mesoamerica developed indigenous writing, which failed to emerge in Polynesia, except perhaps on Easter Island, whose mysterious script may however have postdated the islanders' contact with Europeans. Because the Tongan Archipelago itself was geographically close-knit and included several large islands with unfragmented terrain, each island became unified under a single chief; then the hereditary chiefs of the largest Tongan island Tongatapu united the whole archipelago, and eventually they conquered islands outside the archipelago up to 500 miles distant.
Nevertheless, central Indonesian islands between Bali and Australia remained surrounded and separated by deep- water channels. With the later rise of genetics, the explanations were recast once again, in genetic terms. Ironically, his ideas have become so accepted and widespread that he has been nearly forgotten. In the years since Yali and I had that conversation, I have studied and written about other aspects of human evolution, history, and language. Hence Toynbee did not pose Yali's question, nor did he come to grips with what I see as history's broadest pattern. This summary also includes key lessons and important passages from the book.
Polynesians on these and some other islands practiced a nonin-i tensive type of shifting, slash-and-burn agriculture. Large and densely populated islands supported craft specialists who produced a wide range of prestige goods for chiefs — such as the feather capes reserved for Hawai- ian chiefs and made of tens of thousands of bird feathers. As a result, accounts like Guns, Germs, and Steel supplant real historical accounts like. They were all killed, as well as those Indians who were carried in the other litters and hammocks. For example, compared with hunter-gatherers, citizens of modern industrialized states enjoy better medical care, lower risk of death by homicide, and a longer life span, but receive much less social support from friendships and extended families.